Wednesday, 30 September 2015
Thursday, 17 September 2015
Dear Pharm.D Professionals,
Finally, the wait is over now its time to prove.. This is a challenging opportunity to prove the strength of Indian research in Global Public Health, If we get succeed in this.. there exists many more opportunities.
All the Best.
Project Duration and Cost:
These grants will be awarded for research studies of public health importance in India. The estimated amount of the available research grant is limited to 30 Lakh INR per fellowship. The total duration of the grant will not exceed more than THREE years.
The applicant must possess a Postgraduate degree from an accredited institution in any domain related to public health, including medical and non-medical sciences, nutrition, physiotherapy, dentistry, pharmacy, nursing, social sciences, law and humanities. It would be desirable if the applicant has a doctoral degree. (Applications related to Biomedical, Biophysics and biochemistry are excluded from PHRI fellowships)
The applicant must be40 years or less at the time of applying for the PHRI Research Grant, age relaxation of 5 years is applicable for female or if applicant belong to SC/ST/OBC then
Candidates are requested to apply online
a) Online application formats with detailed guidelines are available at the website www.phfi.org Guidelines for Submitting a proposal
This should include the following:
Title of the study
Implications for future research
Dissemination and publication plan
Itemized budget along with justification for each item
Curriculum vitae of investigator listed in the grant application
Word limit: Not more than 3000 words (excluding references, Dissemination plan, Itemized budget and Curriculum Vitae) Font Style: Times New Roman Font Size: 12 with Line Spacing 1.5
Kindly note following should be mentioned while sending the grant application:
Area of work:
Area proposed by candidate should be clearly defined research area in any aspect of Public Health like Public Health Nutrition, Non Communicable Diseases, Infectious Diseases and Public Health Policy etc.
Place of work:
A project site in India, depending on the demand of the research study. The PHFI reserves the right to reject the fellowship application in case candidate DOES NOT FULFIL minimum qualification or supplies any false information.
Public Health Research Initiative (PHRI) Fellowship: 2015. Online submission will close by 15 June 2015 after 5:00 PM.
Today, I would like to list out 100 important global health issues that are covered under Public health.
I have come across many students making fun of Public health, when asked what is public health they say.. "it is health of public and why you are asking it when it is so simple". Let me add few points for their innocence.
What is Public health?
Public health refers to all organized measures to prevent disease, promote health, and prolong life among the population as a whole. Its activities aim to provide conditions in which people can be healthy and focus on entire populations, not on individual patients or diseases. Thus, public health is concerned with the total system and not only the eradication of a particular disease.
The three main public health functions are:
Public health is all around us: the water we drink, the immunizations we receive and the environment in which we live in..
- Adolescent health
- Bacterial diseases
- Biological issues
- Blood transfusion safety and blood products
- Cardiovascular diseases
- Chemical Safety
- Child and Maternal health
- Communicable diseases
- Diarrhoeal diseases and Cholera
- Disabilities and Rehabilitation
- Emergency and Humanitarian action
- ePortuguese programme
- Environmental and Humanitarian action / hazards
- Event based surveillance
- Evidence informed policy making
- Filarial infections
- Food safety
- Gender, Women and Health
- General management
- Genetics and hereditary diseases
- Global health observatory
- Global Learning and performance management
- Global mass gathering
- Health economics and financing
- Health information, statistics, measurement and trend assessment
- Health legislation and human rights
- Health promotion and education
- Health security
- Health systems research and development
- Health technology (laboratory services)
- Healthy cities
- Human Resources management
- Human resources for health (excluding Nursing)
- Informatics and telemedicine
- Information technology and telecommunications
- Injuries, violence and accident prevention
- International health regulations
- Laboratory biorisk management
- Laboratory biosecurity
- Library services and publishing
- Mental health and Neurosciences
- Monitoring and Evaluation
- Non-communicable diseases
- Occupational health
- Oral health
- Organ transplantation
- Outbreak alert and response
- Parasitic diseases
- Patient safety
- Pharmaceuticals (Essential drugs and Medicines)
- Planning, Resource coordination and Performance monitoring
- Prevention of Blindness
- Prevention of Deafness
- Public Health Emergency
- Reproductive health
- Research policy and development
- Respiratory infections
- Rheumatic diseases
- Risk assessment
- Risk communication
- Safety measures in Microbiology
- Security management
- Sexual Transmitted Diseases
- Small pox
- Social determinants of health
- Suicide prevention
- Substance abuse (alcohol and drugs)
- Surgical care
- Tourist health and travel medicine
- Traditional medicine
- Vector biology and control
- Viral diseases
- Viral hemorrhagic fevers
- Water and sanitation
World Diabetes Day (WDD) is celebrated annually on November 14. Led by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), World Diabetes Day was created in 1991 by IDF and the World Health Organization in response to growing concerns about the escalating health threat posed by diabetes.
Global Burden : Interesting facts
- The human and economic burden of diabetes is enormous: it affects almost 400 million people, results in over 5 million deaths annually and consumes almost US$ 550 billion in health related expenditures.
- The majority of the costs related to diabetes are spent on treating complications, which can affect the heart, eyes, kidneys and feet; these complications can be prevented through early diagnosis and proper management of diabetes.
- Delayed diagnosis means that many people already have at least one complication by the time they are diagnosed with diabetes.
- Over 70% of type 2 diabetes cases can be prevented or delayed by adopting healthier lifestyles, equivalent to up to 150 million cases by 2035.
- Eating a healthy breakfast decreases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
- A healthy diet containing leafy vegetables, fresh fruit, whole grains, lean meat, fish and nuts can help reduce a person’s risk of type 2 diabetes and avoid complications in people with diabetes.
- Skipping breakfast is associated with weight gain, one of the main risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Overweight and obesity account for up to 80% of new cases of type 2 diabetes.
- Reducing the prevalence of type 2 diabetes will result in an increased participation and productivity in the workforce, given that the greatest number of people with diabetes are between 40 and 59 years of age.
- Diabetes accounts for 10-15% of the total healthcare budgets in high income countries. 1 in 9 healthcare US$ is spent on diabetes.
- Up to 11% of total healthcare expenditure in every country across the globe could be saved by tackling the preventable risk factors for type 2 diabetes.
Know how to prevent it:
I'm very much thankful to His excellency Lt. Colonel PRASAD R TIRUNAGARU M. Pharm., MSC, R.PH for sharing this valuable information with us.
He has thirty five years of experience as a registered pharmacist in USA, as Assistant Chief and Chief of Pharmacy in various army medical centres. Specialties include clinical research in developing human genetic insulin, nutritional studies, in-patient and outpatient pharmacies, oncology, chemotherapy and nuclear pharmacies. Developed hospital formulary, clinical training modules for healthcare professionals.
Message to Indian Pharmacists:
US Job Market: There is always great demand for registered pharmacists in USA, the pharmacists are highly respected, most trusted and well paid professionals. The average salary is $120,000 to $200,000 per year.
Retail and Community Pharmacist: It provides majority of the pharmacist jobs in USA. The major function of the pharmacists is filling and dispensing medications by reviewing and interpreting physician orders, detecting therapeutic incompatibilities. They counsel the patients regarding drug usage, side effects and precautions, they also administer vaccines and drug information. They help physicians and healthcare professionals regarding proper usage, selection of medications and therapeutic guidelines.
Hospital Pharmacist: Pharmacists play a very important role as a healthcare team member in the hospital providing high quality comprehensive pharmaceutical care. Specialties include outpatient pharmacy, inpatient pharmacy, oncology/IV Admixture. They dispense all required medication to the wards for patient administration. They provide clinical drug data, therapeutic information to all medical team members, monitor drug reactions and patient profiles. They help patients with drug counselling to optimize therapy.
Clinical Pharmacist: Clinical pharmacists play a vital role in the applied therapeutics; they require 1-2 years of specialized programmes and training in various specialties, i.e., ambulatory care, internal medicine, pediatrics, psychiatry, geriatrics. They are well paid. They are part of every medical and therapeutic team in the hospital. Recently, State Provider Statues Bill became law in many US states. The Legislation provides that “A pharmacist may perform any patient care service delegated to the pharmacist by a physician”.
Industrial Pharmacist:This is a very promising field, specialties include drug discovery, drug development, manufacturing, clinical trials and marketing. Now, there is an exciting new world bioinformatics, genome therapy, stem cell research and promising nano-technology.
Regulatory Authorities: US Food and Drug Administration and State Boards of Pharmacies have special and important jobs. FDA has several mission-critical medical and science positions at biological evaluations, drug evaluation and research, food safety, applied nutrition, toxicological research and drug inspectors, drug regulatory authorities at various state boards.
Immigration to USA: The important step is getting an immigrant visa to enter into USA. The choices are go for higher education or PhD in various universities. The other one is getting a dependent visa.
State Board Exams: All foreign graduates must obtain certification by the Foreign Pharmacy Graduate Equivalency Committee (FPGEC) before they can get an intern pharmacist licence. They must pass Foreign Pharmacy Graduate Equivalency Exam. In order to practice as a registered pharmacist, you have to pass the North American Pharmacists Licensure Examination (NAPLEX). Rules vary from state to state, please check individual state websites.
Tips for Passing Board Exams
Pharmacy Law: It is a very important part of the State Board Exam. Laws are very strict and precise; each state has its own state board of pharmacy laws.
Pharmacy Mathematics: Our students can easily get 100% , mostly drug dosing conversions, drug percentage calculations and drug formulations etc.
Drug Identifications: They must be able to identify important medications by color, shape, markings on tablets. PDR has all the information.
Trade and Generic Names: They need to learn generic and trade names for the top 200 drugs and more.
Drug Interactions: It is very important to know pharmacological actions of various important drugs, their medicinal chemistry, actions on target organs, drug metabolism, excretion and side effects.
Drug and Food Interactions: They have to know food and drug interactions of all critical drugs.
Clinical Pharmacy: It is a very critical part of patient case studies, patient profiles and interpretation of clinical laboratory tests and adverse drug reactions.
Today, I would like to discuss the importance of Clinical skills for a pharmacist which helps to enact as a communication between the patient and the physician to elicit better quality of health and pharmaceutical care.
But Instead of me writing something about let me recommend you with an expert advise to learn the following:
But Instead of me writing something about let me recommend you with an expert advise to learn the following:
- How to provide better Patient care : Role of Pharmacist
- How to practice Clinical Pharmacy?
- What Communication skills a pharmacists need to acquire?
- How to take Medication Histories and correlate with the current therapy?
- What physical assessment skills a pharmacist need?
- How to review Laboratory and diagnostic tests?
- Patient case presentation
- Pharmaceutical and therapeutic planning
- Monitoring of drug therapies
- Research in providing drug information
- Learn Ethics in Pharmacy and Health care
Through six decades, no resource has matched the authority, esteemed scholarship, and scientific rigor of Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine. Capturing the countless advances and developments across the full span of medicine, the new 19th edition of Harrison’s provides a complete update of essential content related to disease pathogenesis, clinical trials, current diagnostic methods and imaging approaches, evidence-based practice guidelines, and established and newly approved treatment methods.
Here are just a few of the outstanding features of the new Nineteenth Edition:
Section 1 Pain
Section 2 Alterations in Body Temperature
Section 3 Nervous System Dysfunction
Section 4 Disorders of Eyes, Ears, Nose, and Throat
Section 5 Alterations in Circulatory and Respiratory Functions
Section 6 Alterations in Gastrointestinal Function
Section 7 Alterations in Renal and Urinary Tract Function
Section 8 Alterations in Sexual Function and Reproduction
Section 9 Alterations in the Skin
Section 10 Hematologic Alterations
Genes, the Environment, and Disease
Nutrition and Weight Loss
Section 1 Neoplastic Disorders
Section 2 Hematopoietic Disorders
Section 3 Disorders of Hemostasis
Section 1 Basic Considerations in Infectious Diseases
Section 2 Clinical Syndromes: Community-Acquired Infections
Section 3 Clinical Syndromes: Health Care–associated Infections
Section 4 Approach to Therapy for Bacterial Diseases
Section 5 Diseases Caused By Gram-Positive Bacteria
Section 6 Diseases Caused By Gram-negative Bacteria
Section 7 Miscellaneous Bacterial Infections
Section 8 Mycobacterial Diseases
Section 9 Spirochetal Diseases
Section 10 Diseases Caused By Rickettsiae, Mycoplasmas, and Chlamydiae
Section 11 Viral Diseases: General Considerations
Section 12 Infections Due to DNA Viruses
Section 13 Infections Due to DNA and RNA Respiratory Viruses
Section 14 Infections Due to Human Immunodeficiency Virus and other Human Retroviruses
Section 15 Infections Due to RNA Viruses
Section 16 Fungal Infections
Section 17 Protozoal and Helminthic Infections: General Considerations
Section 18 Protozoal Infections
Section 19 Helminthic Infections
Terrorism and Clinical Medicine
Section 1 Introduction to CardiovasCular Disorders
Section 2 Diagnosis of Cardiovascular Disorders
Section 3 Disorders of Rhythm
Section 4 Disorders of the Heart
Section 5 Coronary and Peripheral Vascular Disease
Section 1 Diagnosis of Respiratory Disorders
Section 2 Diseases of the Respiratory System
Section 1 Respiratory Critical Care
Section 2 Shock and Cardiac Arrest
Section 3 Neurologic Critical Care
Section 4 Oncologic Emergencies
Disorders of the Kidney and Urinary Tract
Section 1 Disorders of the Alimentary Tract
Section 2 Liver and Biliary Tract Disease
Section 3 Disorders of the Pancreas
Section 1 The Immune System in Health and Disease
Section 2 Disorders of Immune-Mediated Injury
Section 3 Disorders of the Joints and Adjacent Tissues
Section 1 Endocrinology
Section 2 Reproductive Endocrinology
Section 3 Obesity, Diabetes Mellitus, and Metabolic Syndrome
Section 4 Disorders of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
Section 5 Disorders of Intermediary Metabolism
Section 1 Diagnosis of Neurologic Disorders
Section 2 Diseases of the Central Nervous System
Section 3 Nerve and Muscle Disorders
Section 4 Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
Section 5 Psychiatric and Addiction Disorders
Poisoning, Drug Overdose, and Envenomation
Disorders Associated with Environmental Exposures
Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics has been the world’s most trusted pediatrics resource for nearly 75 years continued to provide the most authoritative coverage of the best approaches to care. Here are just a few of the outstanding features of the new Nineteenth Edition:
Part I – The Field of Pediatrics.
Part II – Growth, Development, and Behavior
Part III – Behavioral and Psychiatric Disorders
Part IV – Learning Disorders
Part V – Children with Special Needs
Part VI – Nutrition
Part VII – Pathophysiology of Body Fluids and Fluid Therapy
Part VIII – Pediatric Drug Therapy
Part IX – The Acutely Ill Child
Part X – Human Genetics
Part XI – Genetic Disorders of Metabolism
Part XII – The Fetus and the Neonatal Infant
Part XIII – Adolescent Medicine
Part XIV – Immunology
Part XV – Allergic Disorders
Part XVI – Rheumatic Diseases of Childhood
Part XVII – Infectious Diseases
Part XVIII – The Digestive System
Part XIX – Respiratory System
Part XX – The Cardiovascular System
Part XXI – Diseases of the Blood
Part XXII – Cancer and Benign Tumors
Part XXIII – Nephrology
Part XXIV – Urologic Disorders in Infants and Children
Part XXV – Gynecologic Problems of Childhood
Part XXVI – The Endocrine System
Part XXVII – The Nervous System
Part XXVIII – Neuromuscular Disorders
Part XXIX – Disorders of the Eye
Part XXX – The Ear
Part XXXI – The Skin
Part XXXII – Bone and Joint Disorders
Part XXXIII – Environmental Health Hazards
Part XXXIV – Laboratory Medicine
Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is a process of systematically reviewing, appraising and using clinical research findings to aid the delivery of optimum clinical care to patients. In 1990's the term Evidence Based Medicine was introduced by "David Sackett and Gordon Guyatt". EBM includes the production of evidence through research and scientific review; production of evidence based clinical guidelines; Implementation of evidence-based, cost-effective practice through education and management; Strategical calculation of outcomes through evaluation of compliance.
The Cochrane Library serves as the most valuable single access point with high-quality, independent evidence to inform healthcare decision-making. The various databases of Cochrane library includes:
- The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews : 3625 reviews and 1921 protocols.
- The Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) : 9025 systemic reviews.
- The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials : 550,000 studies.
- The Health Technology Assessment Database : 7,528 health technology assessments.
- The National Health Service (NHS) Economic Evaluation Database : 24,451 critical appraisals.
SIGN classification of grading Evidence:
1++ High-quality meta-analyses, systematic reviews of RCTs, or RCTs with a very low risk of bias.
1+ Well-conducted meta-analyses, systematic reviews, or RCTs with a low risk of bias.
1– Meta-analyses, systematic reviews, or RCTs with a high risk of bias.
2++ High-quality systematic reviews of case-control or cohort studies High-quality case-control or cohort studies with a very low risk of confounding or bias and a high probability that the relationship is causal.
2+ Well-conducted case-control or cohort studies with a low risk of confounding or bias and a moderate probability that the relationship is causal.
2– Case-control or cohort studies with a high risk of confounding or bias and a significant risk that the relationship is not causal.
3 Non-analytic studies; for example, case reports, case series.
4 Expert opinion.
Views of Pharmacist:
Being an active part of health care system every pharmacist strives to provide the best possible care for patients. However, it is not always possible to translate the current developments into clinical practice. Although pharmacotherapy can be beneficial in all the patients, it can also lead to drug-related problems (DRPs), including untreated indications, drug use without an indication, improper drug selection, subtherapeutic dosage, overdosage, medication error, medication nonadherence, drug interactions, adverse drug reactions, adverse drug withdrawal events, and therapeutic failure. Clinical pharmacy services have a positive impact on drug-related problems and health outcomes reducing the burden and improving the quality of life of patient through Evidence based practice.